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Section name
Populations in transition
Population change
Responses to high and low fertility
Movement responses—migration
Gender and change
Disparities in wealth and development
Measurements of regional and global disparities
Origin of disparities
Disparities and change
Reducing disparities
Patterns in environmental quality and sustainability
Atmosphere and change
Soil and change
Water and change
Biodiversity and change
Sustainability and the environment
Patterns in resource consumption
Patterns of resource consumption
Changing patterns of energy consumption
Conservation strategies
Optional themes
Option A: Freshwater—issues and conflicts
The water system
The hydrological cycle
The water balance
Drainage basins and flooding
Drainage basins
Management issues and strategies
Dams and reservoirs
Floodplain management
Groundwater management
Freshwater wetland management
Irrigation and agriculture
Competing demands for water
Conflicts at the local or national scale
Conflicts at the international scale
Option B: Oceans and their coastal margins
Introduction to oceans
Distribution of oceans
Morphology of oceans
Oceanic water
Oceans and climate
Energy transfers
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Carbon dioxide
The value of oceans
Resource base
Case study
Geopolitics of oceans
Sovereignty rights
Coastal margins
Physical characteristics
Management strategies
Case study
Coral reefs and mangroves
Causes and consequences
Option C: Extreme environments
Challenging environments
Global distribution of extreme environments
The physical characteristics of extreme environments
Glacial environment
Periglacial environment
Hot, arid environments (hot deserts and semi‑arid areas)
Opportunities and challenges for management
Mineral extraction
Human activity
Option D: Hazards and disasters—risk assessment and response
Characteristics of hazards
Vulnerable populations
Risk and risk assessment
Analysis of risk
Hazard event prediction
Measuring disasters
Adjustments and responses to hazards and disasters
Responses to the risk of hazard events
Before the event
Short‑term, mid‑term and long‑term responses after the event
Option E: Leisure, sport and tourism
Leisure at the international scale: tourism
Changes in demand
Changes in supply
Leisure at the international scale: sport
International participation and success
Case study of a contemporary international sports event
Leisure at the national/regional scale: tourism
Case study of a national tourist industry
Case study of ecotourism
Tourism as a development strategy
Leisure at the national/regional scale: sport
Case study of a national sports league
Leisure at the local scale: tourism
Tourism management in urban areas
Tourism management in rural areas
Leisure at the local scale: sport and recreation
The leisure hierarchy
Intra‑urban spatial patterns
Urban regeneration
Sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism
Option F: The geography of food and health
Variations in health
Measuring health
Prevention relative to treatment
Global availability of food
Areas of food sufficiency and deficiency
Case study
Production and markets
Addressing imbalances
Sustainable agriculture
Global patterns of disease
The spread of disease
Geographic factors and impacts
Option G: Urban environments
Urban populations
Inward movement
Outward movement
Natural change
The global megacity
Urban land use
Residential areas
Areas of economic activity
Urban stress
Urban microclimate
Other types of environmental and social stress
The sustainable city
The city as a system
Case studies
Sustainable strategies
HL extension: Global interactions
Measuring global interactions
Global participation
Global core and periphery
Changing space—the shrinking world
Time–space convergence and the reduction in the friction of distance
Extension and density of networks
Economic interactions and flows
Financial flows
Labour flows
Information flows
Environmental change
Degradation through raw material production
The effects of transnational manufacturing and services
Transboundary pollution
Homogenization of landscapes
Sociocultural exchanges
Cultural diffusion: the process
Consumerism and culture
Sociocultural integration
Political outcomes
Loss of sovereignty
Global interactions at the local level
Defining glocalization
Adoption of globalization
Local responses to globalization