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Section name
Topic 1: Cell biology
1.1 Introduction to cells
1.2 Ultrastructure of cells
1.3 Membrane structure
1.4 Membrane transport
1.5 The origin of cells
1.6 Cell division
Topic 2: Molecular biology
2.1 Molecules to metabolism
2.2 Water
2.3 Carbohydrates and lipids
2.4 Proteins
2.5 Enzymes
2.6 Structure of DNA and RNA
2.7 DNA replication, transcription and translation
2.8 Cell respiration
2.9 Photosynthesis
Topic 3: Genetics
3.1 Genes
3.2 Chromosomes
3.3 Meiosis
3.4 Inheritance
3.5 Genetic modification and biotechnology
Topic 4: Ecology
4.1 Species, communities and ecosystems
4.2 Energy flow
4.3 Carbon cycling
4.4 Climate change
Topic 5: Evolution and biodiversity
5.1 Evidence for evolution
5.2 Natural selection
5.3 Classification of biodiversity
5.4 Cladistics
Topic 6: Human physiology
6.1 Digestion and absorption
6.2 The blood system
6.3 Defence against infectious disease
6.4 Gas exchange
6.5 Neurons and synapses
6.6 Hormones, homeostasis and reproduction
Additional higher level
Topic 7: Nucleic acids
7.1 DNA structure and replication
7.2 Transcription and gene expression
7.3 Translation
Topic 8: Metabolism, cell respiration and photosynthesis
8.1 Metabolism
8.2 Cell respiration
8.3 Photosynthesis
Topic 9: Plant biology
9.1 Transport in the xylem of plants
9.2 Transport in the phloem of plants
9.3 Growth in plants
9.4 Reproduction in plants
Topic 10: Genetics and evolution
10.1 Meiosis
10.2 Inheritance
10.3 Gene pools and speciation
Topic 11: Animal physiology
11.1 Antibody production and vaccination
11.2 Movement
11.3 The kidney and osmoregulation
11.4 Sexual reproduction
Option A: Neurobiology and behaviour
Option A: Neurobiology and behaviour (Core topics)
A.1 Neural development
A.2 The human brain
A.3 Perception of stimuli
Option A: Neurobiology and behaviour (Additional higher level topics)
A.4 Innate and learned behaviour
A.5 Neuropharmacology
A.6 Ethology
Option B: Biotechnology and bioinformatics
Option B: Biotechnology and bioinformatics (Core topics)
B.1 Microbiology: organisms in industry
B.2 Biotechnology in agriculture
B.3 Environmental protection
Option B: Biotechnology and bioinformatics (Additional higher level topics)
B.4 Medicine
B.5 Bioinformatics
Option C: Ecology and conservation
Option C: Ecology and conservation (Core topics)
C.1 Species and communities
C.2 Communities and ecosystems
C.3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
C.4 Conservation of biodiversity
Option C: Ecology and conservation (Additional higher level topics)
C.5 Population ecology
C.6 Nitrogen and phosphorus cycles
Option D: Human physiology
Option D: Human physiology (Core topics)
D.1 Human nutrition
D.2 Digestion
D.3 Functions of the liver
D.4 The heart
Option D: Human physiology (Additional higher level topics)
D.5 Hormones and metabolism
D.6 Transport of respiratory gases